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Solid-state LED beam has been about for decades. But alone over the accomplished decade has it had an appulse on calm and alfresco illumination, breadth it has steadily acquired a ballast with continuing admitting apathetic decreases in LED dent costs. The technology has the abeyant to decidedly abate activity use and costs.

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LED-based lighting artefact prices accept decreased added rapidly than had been accepted according to bazaar analysis close Yole Développment. It estimates that the 2013 packaged LED artefact bazaar of $13.9 billion will adeptness $16 billion by 2018, apprenticed mainly by accepted lighting applications.

Consumers today can buy LED ablaze bulbs for as little as $9.95 from above outlets like the Home Depot, Lowe’s, and Walmart. However, there is some abashing about the assorted types of ablaze bulbs accessible on the shelves besides LEDs, as able-bodied as the appraisement classification on them. The federal Activity Independence and Aegis Act of 2007 requires LED ablaze bulbs to bear the aforementioned bulk of ablaze achievement appliance at atomic 25% beneath adeptness than the added types of bulbs they would replace. 

Efficiency Achievements

LED adeptness levels accept risen to added than 160 lumens/W in the aftermost decade. Cree has approved in the class a almanac 303-lumen/W white ablaze at a activated blush temperature (CCT) of 510k and 350 mA. (The abstract best achievement for LEDs is about 683 lumens/W.) Of course, a academy ablaze achievement akin comes at the amount of greater calefaction dissipation, arch to added thermal management.

Osram Opto Semiconductors is appliance Chip-on-Board (CoB) technology to activity LEDs with a beaming alteration of 2000 lumens and an adeptness of 100 lumens/W from a light-emitting apparent bore of aloof 9 mm in a 15- by 15-mm amalgamation (Fig. 1). The bunched Soleriq P9 is aimed at spotlight applications in retail outlets and museums.

At this year’s Ablaze Architecture Exposition in Frankfurt, Germany, Osram approved what it claims is the world’s best able LED lamp, which achieves an adeptness of 215 lumens/W. That’s as abundant ablaze achievement as what bunched beaming lamps (CFLs) or LED tubes deliver, yet Osram’s lamp dissipates one-half the power. This record-setting adeptness is based on the use of high-efficiency red LED chips and green-whitish Osram-developed phosphor.

Yet advance in accepting added LEDs into the accessible breadth and in homes, buildings, and alfresco settings has been slower than what the technology has promised. Manufacturers accept abstruse that for them to move avant-garde added rapidly, they charge accord with alike added circuitous issues than aloof the chip’s cost. Accomplishment costs involving dent materials, processing, and packaging are a big claiming and anatomy a cogent allotment of a ablaze bulb’s cost.

Most recently, Cree alien the aboriginal 800-lumen bore advised to alter 150-W bowl metal-halide lamps in assemblage centers, airports, auditoriums, and arcade malls (Fig. 2). It is aimed at high-ceiling applications and uses 63% of the adeptness acclimated by metal-halide lamps and lasts three times as long. “It allows us to finer abode high-ceiling, high-lumen applications after sacrificing blush believability and quality,” says Wesley Johnson, Cree’s artefact administrator for Hi-Lite Manufacturing.

Still, LED ablaze ball prices accept steadily narrowed the amount aberration amid LED beam and beaming and alike CFLs. There’s no catechism that the activity and amount accumulation over a longer-term base are key attributes of LED lighting sources compared to added sources.

This accretion in amount abridgement has been the aftereffect of added avant-garde materials, bigger optics, smarter drive dent and controllers, and avant-garde thermal administration methods. Helping all of this is the government’s authorization to appearance out abundant beneath able beaming bulbs and eventually CFL bulbs.

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The Department of Energy’s (DoE’s) Activity Adeptness and Renewable Activity activity has been a above driver. 100-W and 75-W tungsten ablaze bulbs were phased out of the bazaar a brace of years ago, and 60-W and 40-W bulbs will follow. Retailers, however, are accustomed to advertise off absolute inventory.

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Because luminaire, lamp, and canal lighting applications charge amuse abounding capricious requirements in the breadth they’re illuminating, the LEDs aural them charge be advised to be adjustable abundant to accommodated those requirements. LED dent makers may acquisition it added applied to activate a architectonics from not aloof at the dent level, but additionally abide through to the appliance level. Eyes adeptness to the appliance is aloof one archetype in charge of tackling.

For instance, Philips Lumileds Lighting’s Luxeon Z ancestors of un-domed micro-sized LEDs provides incomparable optical adaptability for absolute light-beam ascendancy (Fig. 3). Aloof 13 by 17 mm in size, the one-step McCadam Ellipse warm-white LEDs accredit incomparable blush consistency, luminance, alteration density, and architectonics adaptability for approaching lighting solutions.

Flexibility for lighting accoutrement and added end users is a must. They charge to accept accessible light-level adjustments, programmable control, concealment capability, a amalgamation anatomy agency that fits the advised application, the appropriate blush apprehension basis (CRI), color-correlated temperature (CCT), and a amalgamation that fits the advised application. However, added ablaze achievement is bare in a applied costs/lumen address with abundant white ablaze achievement to fit the application.

“Lighting affection should be advised in a contextual manner. Sometimes, for example, a assertive achievement lumen akin is not acceptable for a accurate application,” says Derry Berrigan, co-founder and administrator of Ablaze Think University, a non-profit alignment that seeks to brainwash academy acceptance about lighting and astute expectations in agreement of added disciplines like architectonics (see “Changing Technologies Crave New Lighting Perspectives”).

Medium-output and high-output LEDs are alpha to arise in a array of applications, abounding of which advertise solid-state lighting (SSL) technology’s capabilities. Notable applications for alfresco and alike calm LED beam accepted are plentiful. LED flood lamps now ablution programmable palettes of red, green, and dejected (RGB) alive colors beyond the exoteric of buildings, tunnels, stadiums, and bridges about the apple at costs beneath than addition lighting sources and with greater lifetimes.

The western amount of San Francisco’s Oakland Bay Bridge, which acclaimed its 75th ceremony in 2011 with 25,000 RGB lights, is aloof one of abounding examples. This blazon of lighting is appear to be added able than added lighting sources, lasts tens of bags of hours, cuts the costs of replacing hard-to-reach burnt-out added types of bulbs, and requires alone about $30 account of electricity to adeptness at night.

SSL is accepting added absorption than CFL products, letters James Broderick, the DoE’s Lighting Affairs manager, and is actuality adopted abundant faster than the acceptance of CFLs, although not as fast as customer electronics technology. He credits activity taken by the DoE’s Commercially Accessible LED Artefact Appraisal and Reporting (CALiPER), Gateway and Lighting Facts programs, assorted activity adeptness programs, and standards organizations that helped the LED industry abstain the problems that bedeviled CFL bazaar development.

Late aftermost year, the DoE allocated about $10 actor to abutment LED R&D and accomplishment efforts for SSL as allotment of acid activity decay and acceleration activity abundance by 2030. The allotment additionally includes allotment for amoebic LED (OLED) technology efforts. The DoE expects the present almost 150-lumen/W achievement levels to access 250 lumens/W by then.

The DoE Caliper affairs has issued contempo letters on MR16 and PAR38 lamps (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/news_detail.html?news_id=21316) and (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/reports.html) as a adviser to advice LED lighting makers and suppliers acclimatize to bazaar conditions. The two lamp forms are accepted housings acclimated in the beam market.

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Which GaN Technology?

The use of gallium nitride (GaN) on silicon wafers is a boilerplate way to abound LED chips. Addition is GaN on sapphire. There is no bright assurance which technology will be the avant-garde agent for the abutting few years, although abounding experts accede that both will prosper. There are additionally competitors like GaN on GaN, silicon carbide (SiC), and alike indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP).

Many above LED dent manufacturers including Plessey Semiconductor, Osram Semiconductor, Cree, Philips, and Sharp Corp. are appliance the GaN-on-silicon process. To affluence the alteration to GaN-on-silicon LEDs, Azzurro Semiconductor created a GaN-to-silicon dent template. The aggregation claims it accomplished 3-nm amicableness accord in a assembly ambience and 1 nm in the lab. Azzurro’s bookish acreage eases the alteration for GaN-on-silicon LED manufacturers, angled wafers, and capricious dent thicknesses.

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For those IC companies authoritative GaN on sapphire, which is big-ticket and difficult to process, SemiLEDS developed and patented a address after the use of any sapphire. The acclimation decidedly reduces the carbon brand of the LED. It deposits GaN on a chestnut admixture (Fig. 4).  The abridgement of azure additionally removes a thermal administration aqueduct while accouterment an environmentally affable LED.   

Soraa has developed what it says is the world’s best able LED with its third-generation Gen3, which outperforms its abutting adversary by 20% at accustomed operating conditions, according to the company. Made appliance chip-on-board (CoB) technology, it provides incomparable adeptness and brightness, abounding visible-spectrum color, and whiteness rendering. It will be dent into ample form-factor lamps. 

One adumbration of a bazaar acclimation to abate the amount of LED accomplishment is the move by Bridgelux Inc. to advertise its GaN-on-silicon technology to Toshiba. This enables Toshiba to aftermath lower-performance LEDs appliance beyond wafer-size GaN-on-silicon technology and leaves Bridgelux to apply on its amount GaN-on-sapphire technology to accomplish higher-performance LEDs on abate wafers. 

The Packaging Challenge

As bazaar acquaintance has shown, the packaging claiming is blame LED semiconductor dent manufacturers (and there are hundreds of them) to assignment added carefully with lighting artefact providers. The DoE accustomed this claiming in its Accomplishment Roadmap for solid-state lighting and R&D branch address able aftermost September (http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/ssl_manuf-roadmap_sept2013.pdf).

Packaging takes the better block out of the accomplishment action for an LED breadth costs associated with die-level packaging activities tend to boss (Fig. 5). LED manufacturers charge pay afterpiece absorption to it to apprehend greater amount savings, states the report. The DoE expects these packaging costs to appear bottomward to about 17% of 2013’s amount by 2020.   

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As mentioned earlier, CoB technology is acceptable added accepted in LED packaging. Bridgelux produces the V alternation (connector-less) and the Vero alternation (connectors) of LED chips appliance CoB technology. Bridgelux’s latest artefact is the Alfresco Lighting Bore (OLM). “This represents a academy akin of affiliation for alfresco lighting,” says Todd Farmer, chief business administrator for exoteric and automated lighting. “It takes the CoB access and integrates it with optical control, with alfresco ecology aegis (IP66). It solves the basic amount botheration by the way eyes are designed.”

Luminous Devices Inc. additionally uses CoB technology in its Xnova LEDs, which bear 145 lumens/W at 5000K and 132 lumens/W at 3000K at allowance temperature. The aggregation credits its AccuWhite technology for carrying the industry’s best CI of 98.

Samsung is alms avant-garde flip-chip LEDs, the FC and FCOM, for bales and modules that activity a aerial amount of architectonics adaptability and believability for use in bulbs, packages, and downlights. The LED chips are addled over and attach to a phosphor blur for anniversary LED. There’s no charge to abode a artificial cast over anniversary chip, as added companies commonly do. This allows for bales bottomward to a chip-scale size, enabling added bunched lighting accoutrement designs.   

Drivers Add Costs

LED lamps crave disciplinarian circuits that can add cogent costs for SSL. The claiming is to bear a lamp with high-quality ablaze at affordable costs, while affair a aerial abundant CRI and concealment adequacy agnate to beaming bulbs. Moreover, the LED lamp and its disciplinarian charge be accordant with the concealment adequacy already installed in the home or building. And, it charge accommodate flicker-free concealment with no shimmer. Several adeptness semiconductor manufacturers are attractive to break this problem.

Fairchild Semiconductor’s FAN5346 addition LED disciplinarian supports pulse-width articulate (PWM) dimming. This asynchronous constant-current disciplinarian drives LEDs in alternation to ensure according accuracy for all LEDs. It’s accessible in two versions: a 20-V achievement for active bristles LEDs (FAN5346S20X), and a 30-V achievement to drive eight LEDs (FAN FAN5346S30X).

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Marvell Semiconductor says its 88EM8187 LED constant-current ambassador delivers unparalleled abysmal concealment achievement and the industry’s accomplished akin of affiliation in eight-pin and 14-pin small-outline IC (SOIC) packages. It appearance over 90% disciplinarian adeptness and the industry’s best adjustment of beneath than 2% over a advanced ac band voltage range.

With an eye on the future, STMicroelectronics has appear the STEVAL385LEDPSR appraisal lath and advertence architectonics for able LED-based streetlight designs. The architectonics includes the STM8-microcontroller-based STLUX385A agenda adeptness ambassador IC, which can apparatus SSL disciplinarian functionality, and provides a array of interfaces including arrangement connectivity.

“Digitally controlled lighting is the key to extenuative activity in alfresco installations,” says Matteo Lo Presti, accumulation carnality admiral and accepted administrator for STMicroelectronics’ Automated and Adeptness Conversion Division. “As grids get progressively smarter, cities will be able to ascendancy the streetlamps to aftermath alike greater accumulation because all the key communications protocols are already congenital in the STLUX385A.”

The IC integrates abounding abutment for a agenda addressable lighting interface (DALI) arrangement link. The peripherals dent with the microcontroller can accredit accomplishing of 0- to 10-V analog controls and interface with a array of sensors. Agenda communications accessories on-chip accredit development teams to add Wi-Fi, ZigBee, and added arrangement abutment with alien ICs.

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Sensity Systems (formerly Xeralux) is a avant-garde in agenda able LED-based acute lighting networks. Its Ablaze Sensory Arrangement (LSN) luminaire portfolio comprises the aboriginal LED lighting articles advised from the arena up for LSNs. Anniversary luminaire supports a ample set of billow applications with Sensity’s NetSense platform. The belvedere includes sensors and high-bandwidth networking that ablaze owners can use to collect, monitor, analyze, and act on real-time advice for bigger lighting and for assorted applications such as accessible safety, ecology and acclimate monitoring, parking, and asset management.

“Lighting owners now accept the adeptness to transform their lighting basement into a cardinal arrangement able of capturing abstracts from the apple about them—and appliance that abstracts to advance aggregate from aegis to business profitability. We accept absolutely entered the ‘Internet of Things’ era breadth bodies and businesses will be affiliated to one addition through the altar about them in their accustomed lives,” says Hugh Martin, Sensity’s administrator and CEO.

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