Most bodies that are putting up Christmas decorations accept already accomplished the task. Of course, if you are a business or a burghal you allegedly put up lights afore Halloween – I accept no abstraction why. So, of advance I appetite to appraisal how abundant money these lights amount to run over the anniversary season. Let’s get to work.
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To start, I will get an abstraction of how abundant ability a fiber of Christmas lights uses. There is this adequately alarming device, the Watts Up Pro. Basically, you bung altered accessories into it and it tells you the ability that accessory uses. The added air-conditioned affair is that you can bung it into your computer and almanac changes in ability application Vernier’s Logger Pro software.
Here is a adequately accepted bond of 100 lights with the Watts Up Pro.
That’s 44.7 watts for 100 lights or 0.447 Watts per tiny bulb. What about the accomplished tree? Well, I could aloof appraisal the cardinal of lights on there but I absent track. My wife absolutely brand lots of lights. I feel bad for adage this, but I abstinent the ability – 508 watts. BOOM. That is way added than I expected. If I accept all of the bulbs are 0.447 watts, this would beggarly there are over 1,000 lights on that abuse tree.
What abroad do we accept Christmas lights on? Well, the kids accept baby copse in their apartment and there is addition baby timberline by the aperture forth with a afire wreath. This puts our calm Christmas lights at about 800 watts. Aloof for a comparison, my coffee pot uses about 650 watts while authoritative coffee and my refrigerator averages to beneath 100 watts over a day.
What about the alfresco lights? For me, I am at 474 watts. This agency that my Christmas spirit consumes about 1,300 watts. I am killing the planet with my spirit.
Estimating the U.S. Amount ————————
Now for the admiration part. With any estimation, you accept to accomplish some assumptions. Actuality are mine:
You can see that I included capricious names for these estimates so that I can address bottomward my adding as an blueprint (then the ethics can calmly be changed). OK, first, how abundant activity was used? Bethink that ability is the amount of change of energy:
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Using my estimates for lights, I can address the U.S. activity acceptance for Christmas as:
Then the absolute amount would artlessly be this activity times the amount per energy. However, my activity is in Joules, or watt*seconds. I can catechumen this activity amount into dollars per joule:
This puts the amount at:
Just accomplish abiding that c is in the actual units – additionally Tavg needs to be in seconds, not hours. Putting in my estimates, I get an electricity amount of $233 million. That’s not too bad. I mean, it’s a lot of money – but this is the USA we are talking about here. I would analyze this to the activity extenuative by switching out of Daylight Extenuative Time – but I abort to see how to get a acceptable appraisal for that.
What About the Griswold Christmas Lights? —————————————–
I abhorrence that one of my admired Christmas movies is Christmas Vacation because it isn’t absolutely adapted for the accomplished family. But it abiding is funny. So, what about Clark’s lights on his house? How abundant would that cost?
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First, there is an important aberration with the Griswold house. Clark Griswold allegedly uses the old-style Christmas lights. You know, the ones with the big and hot bulbs. I don’t accept a bond of these lights to measure. However, I did acquisition a ball that looks agnate in a Christmas night-light. It runs on 6.3 watts.
But how abounding lights does Clark use? That’s a boxy one. Let’s alpha with a ball breadth density. If I accept the aperture in the screenshot aloft is 2 meters tall, I can get an appraisal for how abounding ablaze bulbs are acclimated per aboveboard meter. With some basal counting, I am activity to go with 20 bulbs per aboveboard meter. The capital roof of the abode is about 15 meters advanced – but there is additionally a barn that is maybe 4.5 meters wide. I will aloof appraisal the absolute roof breadth at about 19 meters by 10 meters. Let me accommodate addition 30 aboveboard meters to annual for the lights on the advanced of the abode (assuming no lights on the back). This puts the light-covered breadth at 220 m2.
How abounding ablaze bulbs? This would be (220 m2)*(20 bulbs/m2) = 4,400 bulbs. If anniversary ball is 6.3 watts, the absolute ability would be 27.7 kilowatts. There are lots of altered estimates out there for the domiciliary ability uses. An appraisal (averaged over a day) is allegedly amid 500 and 1,000 watts (but not during Christmas). That ability assume like a low estimate, but bethink that for allegedly bisected the day, there isn’t abundant activity on in the abode (electricity-wise). So Clark’s abode is acutely above the norm.
How abundant would this abode amount to ability the lights? Well, first, Clark allegedly paid the 1989 electricity rates. I’m not abiding what those ante were, but they had to accept been lower than 10 cents per kilowatt hour. If he ran that exact bureaucracy with today’s ante for 4 hours, that would amount $11 a day – or 4.6 cents per minute. It seems like in the movie, he put the lights up adequately abutting to Christmas so maybe he alone had these lights up for a brace of weeks.
What if Clark acclimated the abate lights that are accepted now? These aren’t as bright, so he would allegedly accept to bifold the ablaze body to maybe 40 lights per aboveboard meter. Bold a ability per ball of 0.447 watts this would accord a absolute ability of 3.9 application and a amount of $1.56 per day.
I should accept additionally looked at the LED lights, but I didn’t accept any of those to analysis (yet).
But what about the accepted activity through this outlet?
From the movie, it seems like all of the lights are acquainted into aloof this one aperture (and that was the acumen he couldn’t get the affair to work). What affectionate of accepted would this have? In agreement of current, I can address the ability as:
Of course, with domiciliary circuits, both the accepted and the voltage are alternating at 60 Hz. If I use the root-mean-square accepted and voltage (RMS), I get the RMS ability (which is what the Watts Up Pro gives). Oh, what the heck is up with application RMS? Well, if you artifice the voltage (or current) as a action of time, it is absolute bisected the time and abrogating bisected the time. If you averaged the accepted over one accomplished cycle, assumption what you get? You get aught amps. So, the ambush is to aboveboard the accepted and again acquisition the average. After that, you can booty the aboveboard basis of this boxlike average. It gives a non-zero amount that is a acceptable representation of the boilerplate current.
In the U.S., the accepted aperture RMS voltage is 120 volts. With this, I can break for the RMS current. If the lights use 27.7 kWatts, this would be a accepted of 230 Amps. Is that high? Oh, yes. Very high. A archetypal high-current accessory like a exhaustion cleaner is about beneath than 10 amps. According to Wikipedia, it looks like the highest-current ambit breaker trips at 125 Amps. So … how did Clark Griswold get his alfresco lights to alike work? Who knows? Maybe he shorted out the ambit breaker – which would be dumber than giving Jelly of the Month as a gift.
How hot would the affairs get? OK. So, the addendum bond that Clark plugs in looks like a accepted cord. First, these things are alone rated for like 13 Amps, not over 200 Amps. But it looks like they are about 16-gauge wire central with a bore of 1.291 mm. So, let’s say I accept 1 cm of this wire. What attrition would it have? Application the resistivity of chestnut (ρ), I can acquisition the resistance:
At allowance temperature, chestnut has a resistivity of 1.68 x 10-8 Ω*m. So, my 1 cm area of wire would accept a attrition of 0.00128 Ω. Notice that if the wire had no attrition at all, it wouldn’t get hot. Also, as the wire gets hotter, the resistivity goes up too. I’ll aloof stick with this one amount for now.
Now, let’s say I run accepted through this wire for 60 seconds. Now that I accept the attrition of this little piece, I can account the ability it dissipates (by accepting resistance).
Using a accepted of 230 Amps, this little allotment of wire would accept blown 67.7 Joules of energy. Let’s say aloof bisected of this activity goes into an access in thermal activity of the little articulation of wire and the added bisected of activity gets broadcast out (or heats up added things like the wire insulator). Application a calefaction accommodation of chestnut with a amount of 0.385 J/(g*K), I can use the afterward announcement for the change in temperature:
Now, I aloof charge the mass. If I accept this little butt of chestnut and I apperceive the body of chestnut is 8.94 g/cm3, I can acquisition that the accumulation would be 0.117 grams. This would accord a temperature change of 31.8°C. If it started at 0°C, it would end up at 31.8°C or 90°F. That’s not too hot. However, that is aloof active for one minute. If he larboard this one for 4 hours, brainstorm what would happen.
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I accept this funny activity that Clark says how abounding lights he put up. However, I am abashed to re-watch this allotment of the cine in case I am berserk off on my estimate.
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