A schematic diagram of the affectation artifact activity appliance the pen-drawing adjustment is apparent in Fig. 1a. Eight solutions were able for the six-step pen-drawing affectation artifact process: PH1000 (highly conductive PEDOT:PSS, 95 vol% PH1000, 5 vol% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) for the anode (step 1), PEDOT:PSS (100 vol% AI 4083) for the HIL (step 2), poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) for the HTL (step 3), three QDs (CdSeS@ZnS, CdZnSeS@ZnS, and CdZnS@ZnS QDs as red (R), blooming (G), and dejected (B) emitters, respectively) for the EML (step 4), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) for the ETL (step 5), and argent nanowires (Ag NWs) for the cathode (step 6).
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Pen-drawing display. a Schematic diagram of pen-drawing affectation with six cartoon pens absolute anode, aperture bang bandage (HIL), aperture alteration bandage (HTL), discharge bandage (EML), electron alteration bandage (ETL), and cathode solutions. A breakthrough dot light-emitting diode (QD-LED) affectation bogus appliance the pen-drawing adjustment consists of PH1000 (anode), PEDOT:PSS (HIL), PVK (HTL), CdSeS@ZnS (red (R), EML), CdZnSeS@ZnS (green (G), EML), CdZnS@ZnS (blue (B), EML), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs, ETL), and argent nanowires (Ag NWs, cathode). b Optical angel (left) of the pen-drawing accoutrement setup. The pen cartoon was performed appliance a custom-built three-axis micropositioning arrangement controlled by a computer-programmable motion controller. Acreage discharge scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) angel (right) of the pen point of the felt-tip pen. c Schematic diagram and alive assumption of blur accumulation through pen drawing
The cartoon acceleration was manipulated appliance a custom-built three-axis micropositioning arrangement at allowance temperature (20 °C) (Fig. 1b). Compared with besom pens, pencils, bubbler pens, and brawl pens with different tip shapes, felt-tip pens facilitate the accumulation of a affectation with QDs and electrode solutions attributable to their absorptive autograph apparent composed of apprenticed and layered fibers. Specifically, by capricious the appearance and amplitude of a felt-tip pen, a free-style affectation appearance with different light-emitting areas can be readily formed. In addition, such pens acquiesce accessible ascendancy of the analysis and amplitude because the breadth affecting the substrate during pen cartoon can be maintained uniformly. Hence, we called a felt-tip pen for our implementation. A felt-tip pen was aboriginal blood-soaked in anniversary solution. The band-aid was afresh transferred assimilate a substrate beneath autography burden to anatomy a wet film. The substrates acclimated were Corning glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic film, and paper.
When the felt-tip pen in which anniversary band-aid is captivated is brought into acquaintance with the substrate, a meniscus is formed at the solution–air interface by apparent astriction and capillary action. During writing, a microburst force is activated on the band-aid amid the two boundaries, namely, the solution–substrate and the solution–felt-tip pen interfaces (Fig. 1c)22. The microburst force is bedeviled by the motion of the felt-tip pen. Afterwards accumulation of the meniscus at the solution–air interface and accumbent movement of the pen at a affiliated speed, the band-aid spreads forth the substrate and a attenuate blur is formed as the bread-and-butter evaporates. The analysis and array of the attenuate blur are abased on the cartoon speed, cardinal of cartoon cycles, and substrate temperature. The cartoon acceleration was analogously maintained in the ambit of 10–30 mm/s appliance the custom-built three-axis micropositioning arrangement controlled by a computer-programmable motion controller. It is all-important to optimize the cardinal of cartoon cycles, as it determines the accord of the films on the substrate. In particular, in the case of PH1000, which should be deposited aboriginal on the substrate as an anode layer, and the Ag NWs, which should be analogously affiliated with anniversary added as a cathode layer, the cardinal of cartoon cycles acerb affects the electrical appliance and optical transmittance. In addition, the dehydration acceleration of the bread-and-butter actual on the attenuate blur formed by pen cartoon was controlled by applying a temperature of 60 °C to the substrate so as not to accident the lower bandage in the activity of basic a specific bandage appliance the pen-drawing method.
The acreage discharge scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images in Fig. 2 appearance the accord amid the cartoon acceleration and the attenuate blur array of anniversary bandage (PH1000, PEDOT:PSS, PVK, QDs, ZnO NPs, and Ag NWs) afterwards anniversary pen-drawing step. Three cartoon speeds of 10, 20, and 30 mm/s were selected, which are agnate to the acceleration at which a being writes on boilerplate (~20 mm/s). In general, meniscus-guided degradation appliance the brand blanket adjustment or aperture die blanket adjustment increases or decreases the blur array depending on the blanket speed29,30. If the blanket acceleration is agnate to or lower than the dehydration acceleration of the bread-and-butter (<0.1 mm/s), the blur array decreases because the blur dries while microburst force is activated to the meniscus breadth amid the substrate and the solution31,32. By contrast, in this study, if the blanket acceleration for pen cartoon is college than the dehydration acceleration of the solvent, a wet blur is formed alfresco the meniscus in accordance with the classical Landau–Levich regime. In this case, as the blanket acceleration increases, the blur array increases because a supersaturated wet blur is formed by capillary breeze in the meniscus area. The array (h) of the attenuate blur can be bidding as a action of the capillary cardinal Ca = µ∙U/σ, breadth U is the blanket acceleration and µ and σ represent the bendability and apparent astriction of the blanket solution, respectively33,34. According to the blueprint h = 1.34∙Ca2/3∙Rd, the array of the attenuate blur increases with the blanket speed. Here, Rd represents the ambit of curvature of the afterwards meniscus.
Gallery of pen-drawing images. PH1000, PEDOT:PSS, poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), QDs, ZnO NPs, and Ag NWs were deposited in order, and the array of anniversary bandage was empiric appliance FE-SEM. The nanometer-scale array could be controlled by manipulating the cartoon acceleration while the cardinal of cartoon cycles (1 half-cycle) and substrate temperature (20 °C) were fixed
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In the pen-drawing activity at allowance temperature (20 °C), the solutions absolute PH1000, PEDOT:PSS, PVK, QDs, ZnO NPs, and Ag NWs were broiled as adhesive wet films according to the classical Landau–Levich regime. Hence, the array added with the access in cartoon acceleration from 10 to 30 mm/s (see Supplementary Fig. 1). For PH1000, PEDOT:PSS, and PVK, which are polymer-type materials, the bendability added rapidly as the polymer chains were circuitous back the bulk of bread-and-butter in the polymer band-aid decreased. As a result, the array of the polymer blur added exponentially with the cartoon speed. This ascertainment confirms that the array of the attenuate films is controlled in accordance with the classical Landau–Levich regime, breadth bendability has a ascendant effect. Unlike polymers, QDs, ZnO NPs, and Ag NWs accept few concrete interactions amid particles, and the bendability added hardly with the concentration. Thus, the array added linearly in admeasurement to the cartoon speed.
Figure 3 shows the breadth attrition and accuracy of the anode and cathode produced by the pen-drawing method. Attributable to the anatomy of the QD display, for which different layers allegation be formed vertically, it is analytical to anatomy a compatible PH1000 blur as the antecedent bandage on the substrate. PH1000 is the best adumbrative conductive circuitous in which PEDOT with a absolute allegation and PSS with a abrogating allegation are alloyed in a arrangement of 1:2.5. The PEDOT:PSS circuitous in the PH1000 aqueous band-aid has a accurate core–shell anatomy composed of berserk PEDOT atom cores amidst by shells with hydrophilic PSS chains. Thus, for the PH1000 blur formed by pen cartoon on a hydrophilic bottle substrate at allowance temperature (20 °C), the berserk and conductive PEDOT molecules are apparent to the apparent as the damp evaporates. The PEDOT molecules, which are hydrophobic, tend to accumulated attributable to hydrophilic–hydrophobic abhorrence with the bottle substrate. PH1000 has a greater addiction for band-aid accession through hydrophilic–hydrophobic abhorrence than the HIL (PEDOT:PSS bandage (PEDOT:PSS ratio = 1:6)), HTL, EML, and ETL. Hence, it was difficult to access compatible and abiding attenuate films based on the cartoon acceleration alone. To break this problem, we attempted to anatomy a compatible PH1000 attenuate blur by authoritative the substrate temperature and the cardinal of cartoon cycles. Note that 1 aeon involves pen cartoon in one administration for a assertive breadth followed by the aforementioned operation in the adverse direction. To anatomy a PH1000 attenuate film, we added the substrate temperature (20, 40, 60, and 80 °C) beneath a anchored cartoon acceleration (20 mm/s) and a anchored cardinal of cartoon cycles (1 cycle). As apparent in the inset images in Supplementary Fig. 2b, back pen cartoon was performed for 1 cycle, the PH1000 blur was not formed analogously in the pen-drawing area, alike back the temperature was added to 80 °C. However, back the accuracy and breadth attrition were abstinent at the centermost and bend of the pen-drawing area, the differences in the accuracy and breadth attrition of the PH1000 blur at 60 °C were begin to be abate than those at the added temperatures (Supplementary Fig. 2a and b). Therefore, in this study, accord of the PH1000 blur was accomplished by adjusting the cardinal of cartoon cycles beneath a anchored substrate temperature of 60 °C. If the temperature is added aloft 60 °C, a coffee-ring aftereffect occurs attributable to capillary breeze at the bend of the pen-drawing breadth breadth the bread-and-butter dehydration acceleration is high, and added PEDOT molecules are deposited at the bend (Supplementary Fig. 2d)35.
Electrical and optical backdrop of PH1000 and Ag NWs. Breadth resistance, optical transmittance, and photo images of PH1000 (a) and Ag NWs (b) depending on the cardinal of cartoon cycles. c Transmittance back anniversary bandage (PH1000, PEDOT:PSS, PVK, QDs, ZnO NPs, and Ag NWs) is sequentially formed on a bottle substrate
Figure 3a shows the transmittance and breadth attrition of the PH1000 attenuate films formed by alteration the cardinal of cartoon cycles from 1 to 9 beneath a anchored substrate temperature of 60 °C. The red and dejected accessible squares in this amount announce the transmittance and breadth attrition of the PH1000 blur that was pen-drawn on the bottle substrate, respectively. Back the cardinal of cartoon cycles added from 1 to 3 and 5, both the accuracy and the breadth attrition decreased and afresh hardly added afterwards 5 or added cycles. Furthermore, afterwards 5 cycles of pen drawing, the absurdity bar admeasurement conspicuously decreased for both the accuracy and breadth attrition data; thus, compatible accuracy and breadth attrition ethics were observed. As apparent in the inset images in Fig. 3a (enlarged images are apparent in in Supplementary Fig. 3c), the PH1000 blur appears thicker at the centermost afterwards 1 and 3 cycles, admitting it appears thicker at the bend afterwards 7 and 9 cycles. Furthermore, the accuracy and breadth attrition abstinent at the centermost tended to abatement and afresh access afresh afterwards 5 cycles. By contrast, the accuracy and breadth attrition of the bend tended to abatement gradually as the cardinal of cartoon cycles added and afresh became affiliated (Supplementary Fig. 3). Afterwards 3 or beneath cycles of pen drawing, the PH1000 wet blur formed at the bend broiled acutely boring and the berserk backdrop of the PEDOT molecules were manifested. As a result, the PEDOT molecules showed a addiction to accumulated at the centermost of the PH1000 wet blur formed on the hydrophilic bottle substrate. Furthermore, afterwards 7 or added cycles of pen drawing, the beneath broiled band-aid at the centermost was activated to the ahead broiled blur at the bend by the microburst force. As a result, the blur array at the bend added while that at the centermost decreased (Supplementary Fig. 3). However, afterwards 5 cycles of pen drawing, the band-aid was broadly advance back the microburst force was activated with the felt-tip pen until the PH1000 band-aid was broiled and the bendability increased. As a result, the PH1000 wet blur was formed analogously afterwards accession at the center. Thus, a cartoon acceleration of 20 mm/s, a substrate temperature of 60 °C, and 5 cycles of pen cartoon were acclimated as the pen-drawing altitude to anatomy the optimal PH1000 layer.
The appliance and accuracy of the Ag NWs acclimated as the cathode depend on the arrangement accompaniment amid the NWs. In added words, it is difficult to access compatible appliance with aloof 1 half-cycle of pen drawing; if the cardinal of pen cartoon half-cycles increases, the appliance increases but the accuracy decreases. Thus, we attempted to actuate the optimal altitude to accomplish both appliance and transparency. Note that 1 half-cycle involves pen cartoon in alone one administration for a assertive area. If the continuance of pen cartoon for the Ag NWs (cathode layer) increases, the ZnO attenuate blur (ETL), which is anon beneath the cathode layer, can be attenuated by isopropyl booze (IPA), which is the bread-and-butter for the Ag NW solution. Hence, to anticipate accident to the ZnO attenuate film, the substrate temperature was maintained at 60 °C to acquiesce accelerated dehydration of the pen-drawn Ag NW band-aid in IPA. Figure 3b shows the accuracy and breadth attrition of the Ag NW bandage controlled by the cardinal of pen cartoon half-cycles to affix the Ag NWs. It was absolute that the accuracy and breadth attrition decreased as the cardinal of pen cartoon half-cycles increased. In particular, a almost abiding breadth attrition of 150 Ω/sq or lower was empiric afterwards 3 or added pen cartoon half-cycles.
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From the beginning after-effects presented above, the optimized pen-drawing altitude for anniversary bandage are as follows. Footfall 1: In the case of PH1000 for the anode, 5 cycles of pen cartoon were performed at a cartoon acceleration of 20 mm/s and a substrate temperature of 60 °C. Footfall 2: In the case of PEDOT:PSS for the HIL, 1 half-cycle of pen cartoon was performed at a cartoon acceleration of 20 mm/s and a substrate temperature of 60 °C. Footfall 3: In the case of PVK for the HTL, 1 half-cycle of pen cartoon was performed at a cartoon acceleration of 20 mm/s and a substrate temperature of 20 °C. Footfall 4: In the case of the three QDs (CdSeS@ZnS, CdZnSeS@ZnS, and CdZnS@ZnS QDs as R, G, and B emitters, respectively) for the EML, 1 half-cycle of pen cartoon was performed at a cartoon acceleration of 20 mm/s and a substrate temperature of 20 °C. Footfall 5: In the case of the ZnO NPs for the ETL, 1 half-cycle of pen cartoon was performed at a cartoon acceleration of 20 mm/s and a substrate temperature of 20 °C. Footfall 6: In the case of the Ag NWs for the cathode, 3 half-cycles of pen cartoon were performed at a cartoon acceleration of 20 mm/s and a substrate temperature of 60 °C. The PEDOT:PSS bandage was produced at 60 °C because, as with PH1000, the bread-and-butter for PEDOT:PSS is baptize and the dehydration acceleration is low if the bandage is produced at allowance temperature (20 °C). In the case of the PEDOT:PSS layer, pen cartoon was performed for alone 1 half-cycle because a bandage with compatible array was formed by accretion the substrate temperature to 60 °C. However, the solvents acclimated for PVK, QDs, and ZnO are chlorobenzene, hexane, and ethanol, respectively, which are awful volatile. Thus, if the substrate temperature is increased, the attenuate blur becomes asperous attributable to dehydration of the solvent. Therefore, for the PVK, QD, and ZnO layers, pen cartoon was performed at allowance temperature (20 °C).
Figure 3c shows the accuracy afterwards anniversary assembly footfall for the layers formed on a bottle substrate with the optimized cartoon speed, substrate temperature, and cardinal of cartoon cycles in ambient air. Thus, the accuracy of the completed pen-drawing affectation produced on a bottle substrate is ~55%. The anode and cathode showed decreases of about 10% and 15% in transparency, respectively, admitting the added light-emitting layers did not account a cogent change in transparency. Note that the pen-drawing affectation formed on the bottle substrate by the pen-drawing adjustment was transparent, such that the chat “Pen” printed on cardboard could be apparent acutely through the display.
For the pen-drawing affectation composed of six multilayers, the analysis of anniversary bandage has a cogent aftereffect on the degradation of the abutting layer. In added words, the rougher the lower layer, the rougher is the bandage deposited aloft it. Moreover, as anniversary bandage except the Ag NW bandage is a attenuate blur with a array of several tens of nanometers, if the accord of anniversary blur decreases, a abbreviate may action in the attenuate allotment during affectation operation. Thus, anniversary bandage allegation be deposited analogously back a multilayered affectation accessory is produced. Figure 4 shows the diminutive force microscopy (AFM) angel of anniversary bandage formed by pen drawing. Anniversary bandage was formed appliance the autography adjustment at a cartoon acceleration of ~20 mm/s. Furthermore, the optimized substrate temperature and cardinal of cartoon cycles, as apparent in Fig. 3, were used. The apparent analysis of anniversary bandage formed by the pen-drawing adjustment was compared with that of the agnate bandage formed by the spin-coating adjustment (Supplementary Fig. 4). Consequently, the root-mean-square (RMS) acerbity (Rrms) ethics of the PH1000, PEDOT:PSS, PVK, QD (G), ZnO, and Ag NW layers were begin to be 1.609, 1.245, 0.700, 1.177, 1.271, and 110.120 nm, respectively, for pen cartoon and 1.278, 1.158, 0.600, 1.456, 1.423, and 90.114 nm, respectively, for circuit coating. To investigate the accord amid the amplitude of the felt-tip pen and the bandage amplitude formed on a substrate, pen cartoon of PH1000 films was performed appliance felt-tip pens with different widths, which dictated the bandage appearance of the acquired blur (Supplementary Fig. 5). These after-effects announce that pen-drawing produces bland and compatible attenuate films that can be acclimated as displays.
Surface analysis of anniversary bandage formed by pen drawing. Diminutive force microscopy (AFM) topographic images, acme breadth analyses, and three-dimensional images of PH1000 (a), PEDOT:PSS (b), PVK (c), QDs for G (d), ZnO (e), and Ag NWs (f)
Figures 5a–c appearance the bandage diagrams of the pen-drawn QD-LEDs consisting of PH1000/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/QD (R, G, and B)/ZnO NP/Ag NW structures. Note that all the layers were formed appliance the pen-drawing method. The abstinent assignment action ethics of the PH1000 and Ag NWs were 5.0 and 4.8 eV, respectively. PVK, which is an amoebic actual acclimated as the HTL, has a added accomplished active atomic alternate (HOMO) akin (−5.4 eV) and shallower everyman alone atomic alternate (LUMO) akin (−1.9 eV) than added HTL materials. Hence, the HOMO akin of PVK lies amid the valence bandage best (−6.8 to −7.2 eV) of the QDs, which are the EML, and the assignment action (−5.0 eV) of the anode. Furthermore, the ample abeyant activity gap amid the LUMO of PVK and the advice bandage minimum (−4.4 to −4.8 eV) of the QDs plays a acute role in preventing electron alteration from the QD EML to the HTL, which may be acquired by the electric field36. The electron affection and ionization abeyant of the ZnO NPs were ~4.3 and ~7.6 eV, respectively. The ZnO NPs as the ETL not alone facilitate the bang of electrons into the QDs but additionally block aperture carriage at the QD/ETL interface and appropriately accommodate added exciton recombination adeptness in the QD bandage region.
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Luminance–current–voltage (LIV) characteristics of the QD light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) bogus appliance the pen-drawing method. Activity levels of red (R), blooming (G), and dejected (B) QD-LEDs. Accomplished active atomic alternate (HOMO) and everyman alone atomic alternate (LUMO) levels of PH1000, PEDOT:PSS, PVK, QDs, ZnO NPs, and Ag NWs. CdSeS@ZnS for R discharge (a); CdZnSeS@ZnS for G discharge (b); and CdZnS@ZnS for B discharge (c). Luminance (d), adeptness (e), and electroluminescence spectra and the Commission Internationale de l’Elcairage (CIE) blush coordinates (f) agnate to the R, G, and B abounding QD-LEDs with the anatomy of PH1000/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/QDs (CdSeS@ZnS for R, CdZnSeS@ZnS for G, and CdZnS@ZnS for B)/ZnO NPs/Ag NWs
Figures 5d–f appearance the luminance–current–voltage (LIV) characteristics of the pen-drawn QD-LEDs, which showed R, G, and B emissions. The pen-drawing affectation accessory consists of PH1000 (~100 nm) as the anode, PEDOT:PSS (~40 nm) as the HIL, PVK (~50 nm) as the HTL, QDs (CdSeS@ZnS for R/CdZnSeS@ZnS for G/CdZnS@ZnS for B; ~30 nm) as the EML, ZnO NPs (~60 nm) as the ETL, and Ag NWs (~600 nm) as the cathode. The Ag NW bandage as the cathode was almost blubbery compared with the added deposited layers, basic an NW arrangement with aerial conductivity. The brilliance characteristics of the pen-drawn QD-LEDs showed aces voltages of ~7 (R), ~7 (G), and ~9 (B) V and best luminance ethics of 125 (R), 72 (G), and 5.6 (B) cd/m2 at 9.4, 9.25, and 10.4 V, respectively. The accepted efficiencies were 0.031 (R), 0.020 (G), and 0.004 (B) cd/A at 9.3, 9.25, and 10 V, respectively.
The poor luminance and adeptness of the bogus accessories were mainly due to the aerial resistivity of the electrodes, almost poor acquaintance resistance, poor transmittance, and the abridgement of absorption from the cellophane brownish cathode. A aerial luminance with a low aces voltage is abased on the breadth attrition of the electrodes. Supplementary Fig. 6 shows the luminance of a affectation produced by depositing the HIL, HTL, EML, and ETL by pen cartoon and depositing the anode and cathode layers by sputtering with indium tin oxide (ITO; ~100 nm) and aluminum (Al, ~150 nm), respectively. Compared with the breadth resistances of ~8.7 Ω/sq for ITO and ~1.3 Ω/sq for Al, the breadth resistances of the pen-drawn PH1000 (~30 Ω/sq) and Ag NWs (~110 Ω/sq) as anode and cathode, respectively, were appreciably higher. This aberration in the attrition characteristics seems to accept decidedly afflicted the luminance and efficiency. Furthermore, the characteristics additionally depend on whether the luminance is abstinent at the anode or cathode of the produced device. For accepted light-emitting devices, the luminance is abstinent in the administration of the cellophane anode (ITO). Thus, the abstinent brilliance and adeptness access because the ablaze emitted from the LED is reflected by the blurred and burnished brownish cathode (Al), and it progresses in the anode direction. However, for the LED produced by pen drawing, there is no blurred and burnished actual such as Al in the lower film, and alone some of the ablaze emitted by the Ag NW bandage as the cathode with 70% accuracy is reflected. As a result, the abstinent luminance and adeptness of the pen-drawing affectation in which the anode and cathode were formed by the pen-drawing adjustment were lower than those of the pen-drawing affectation with basic the anode and cathode by the accepted sputtering process. Thus, such issues should be added advised to assemble brighter and added able pen-drawn QD-LEDs with atypical administering electrode materials. As apparent in Fig. 5f, the electroluminescence spectrum of the pen-drawn QD-LEDs had best peaks of 643 (R), 557 (G), and 455 nm (B) with appreciably attenuated full-width-at-half-maximum ethics of 38 (R), 25 (G), and 24 nm (B). Thus, the bogus accessory can allow aberrant blush purity. As adumbrated in the inset of Fig. 5f, the pen-drawn QD-LEDs showed the Commission Internationale de l’Elcairage (CIE) blush coordinates of (0.66, 0.34) (R), (0.16, 0.78) (G), and (0.15, 0.03) (B).
Figure 6 shows free-style checkered argument “RGB” fatigued on different transparent, flat, and adjustable substrates, such as bottle and artificial substrates, appliance the pen-drawing method. Note that the RGB patterns were formed by duke while advancement the cartoon speed, cardinal of cartoon cycles, and substrate temperature. Figure 6a shows the affectation formed by duke cartoon the RGB argument on a bottle substrate, with the belletrist R, G, and B fatigued from the anode to the HIL, HTL, EML, ETL, and cathode. Figure 6b shows the affectation formed on a artificial substrate in a agnate manner. Alike admitting the artificial substrate is bent, the hand-drawn RGB belletrist are emitted clearly. The advantage of the pen-drawing adjustment for affectation artifact is that displays can be formed in any shape.
Handwriting affectation images appliance the pen-drawing method. Photo images of “RGB” argument displays formed on the bottle (a) and artificial (b) substrates, assuming the optical accuracy and automated flexibility
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Figure 7 shows the activity for bearing a pen-drawing affectation on cardboard and light-emitting RGB images of the bogus device. To aftermath the pen-drawing affectation on paper, eight solutions (PH1000, PEDOT:PSS, PVK, R QDs, G QDs, and B QDs, ZnO NPs, and Ag NWs), eight felt-tip pens, and cardboard substrates were prepared. Ordinary cardboard cannot be acclimated because its apparent is too asperous and it becomes angled back it is wetted by the solutions. Hence, to ensure minimum cardboard roughness, we acclimated photo cardboard that is generally acclimated in accepted inkjet printers (260 g/m2; thickness, 0.25 mm; Formtec photo paper, IH3057). Furthermore, a 300 nm-thick silicon dioxide (SiO2) attenuate blur was deposited on the cardboard substrate to anticipate the band-aid from biting into the artificial fibers and authoritative the attenuate blur thinner or irregular. As apparent in Fig. 7, the pen-drawing affectation was produced by sequentially basic layers of PH1000, PEDOT:PSS, PVK, QDs, ZnO NPs, and Ag NWs. In particular, in footfall 4, the accomplishments was fatigued with B and G QDs and the argument “Display” was accounting with R QDs on the accomplishments by appliance a attenuate felt-tip pen with a pen amplitude of 0.4 mm. Back the argument formed by pen cartoon was empiric beneath ultraviolet (UV) ablaze irradiation, the RGB argument appeared vividly and some overlap was empiric amid the pen-drawn RGB areas. The images at the basal of Fig. 7 shows the produced pen-drawing affectation beneath UV ablaze betterment and different conditions, namely, appliance of a voltage of 14 V, angle of the cardboard substrate, and acid of the cardboard substrate (from the right). All of the images vividly appearance the “Display” text. In the breadth breadth two QDs overlap, a admixture of the two colors can be observed. As apparent in Fig. 5, as the luminance decreases in the adjustment of R, G, and B, the “Display” argument is aflame vividly alike admitting the argument was fatigued with R QDs on top of the areas in which G and B QDs were drawn. Thus, by appliance the pen-drawing adjustment proposed in this study, different texts and abstracts can be handwritten on adjustable substrates (Supplementary Fig. 7). Different argument colors can be created calmly by bond the RGB QDs, and it is accepted that abstracts with different textures can be acquired by appliance felt-tip pens with different thicknesses.
Handwriting images appliance the pen-drawing method. Photo images of “Display” handwritten on paper, assuming the light-emitting ability, automated flexibility, and disturbing properties
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